Valtteri Bottas claimed his first chequered flag of the season while Red Bull driver Max Verstappen finished second to take a six-point lead in the world championship.
Lewis Hamilton will start 11th on Sunday because his team incurred a 10-place grid penalty by changing his engine ahead of the race.
Formula One will make a second attempt to hold the Turkish Grand Prix this season after adding it to the calendar as a replacement for Singapore's cancelled race in October.
Grand Prix cancelled in Canada for the second year in a row due to coronavirus restrictions, officials say.
The 22-year-old Racing Point driver's shock result on the slippery surface ended a run of 14 successive poles for dominant champions Mercedes dating back to last year's Abu Dhabi Grand Prix.
Istanbul governor's office says no fans will be allowed inside Istanbul Park for the entire Turkish Grand Prix race weekend from November 13 to 15 due to the coronavirus outbreak.
Turkey's Istanbul Park circuit will host a race on November 15 ahead of a Bahrain double in late November and early December, the sporting body has said.
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