The cause of the blast at the gate of the facility next to Kabul's international airport was unclear, interior ministry spokesman Abdul Nafy Takor said.
UN Security Council calls on Taliban administration to reverse policies targeting women and girls in Afghanistan, expressing alarm at the "increasing erosion" of human rights in the South Asian country.
The Pakistani Taliban have ramped up deadly attacks across the country, putting pressure on political and military leaders.
Foreign aid groups say they are suspending their work in Afghanistan after the Taliban order to stop their women staff from working.
Top officials from the United Nations and NGOs working in Afghanistan are meeting to discuss the way forward following the announcement of ban on women staff by the Taliban authorities.
Top US diplomat Blinken says Taliban decision could be "devastating for the Afghan people" while UN says most of its activities are carried out by NGOs it contracts and could be impacted.
The latest crackdown on women's freedoms comes days after the Taliban suspended university education for women.
US says Taliban showed a "goodwill gesture" after releasing two Americans in a no-prisoner swap process, but criticised the timing as it came right after it banned women from universities.
Women have been banned from private and public universities in Afghanistan with immediate effect and until further notice, a Taliban government spokesperson says.
Earlier on Tuesday, Pakistan's special forces stormed a counter-terrorism centre in a northwestern district to free several security officials who were taken hostage by a group of detained Pakistani Taliban militants.
Fresh fighting comes less than a week after cross-border shelling and gunfire killed eight Pakistani civilians and one Afghan soldier near the same Chaman-Spin Boldak crossing.
A man guilty of murder was executed by the father of the victim with senior Taliban officials in attendance in western Afghanistan.
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