The victorious Western alliance saw Russia as a crumbled post-Soviet state and did not make enough efforts to let Moscow join the power bloc.
There are both geopolitical and historical reasons behind Moscow’s endless pressure on Kiev, which was the birthplace of the first Russian state in the 9th Century.
Moscow has played a significant role in propelling the conflict between the two neighbours by creating autonomous regions in Azerbaijan and drawing controversial borders.
The hotly contested race pits ex-French ambassador and Georgia's former foreign minister Salome Zurabishvili, supported by the ruling Georgian Dream party, against opposition leader Grigol Vashadze, also a former foreign minister.
Supporters of former Georgian president-turned-Ukrainian opposition leader Mikheil Saakashvili march in the centre of Kiev one week after he was deported to Poland.
Supporters of opposition leader Mikheil Saakashvili demand his release from jail and call for the country's President Petro Poroshenko to be impeached.
Mikheil Saakashvili is stateless. Stripped of citizenship by both nations, he kept his word when he vowed to re-enter Ukraine.
Former president of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili steps down claiming Ukraine's President Poroshenko supports clans.
Polls suggest the ruling Georgian Dream party, funded by the country's richest man, is likely to win. But they also show strong support for the opposition United National Movement (UNM), and that many voters are undecided.
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