The blast occurred in Helmand province where both the Taliban and Daesh are said to be active.
There is increasing scepticism about claims of zero cases in under-developed Myanmar and Laos where many of the labourers come from, as fears grow for their weak health care systems and fragile economies.
It was not immediately clear who was behind the overnight attack, and protesters said they did not know whether the masked gunmen were riot police, special forces or militias. Around 240 anti-government protester have been killed this month.
Ghazni governor's office said 12 of the wounded are female students of Ghazni University which is located on the outskirts of the provincial capital.
Abdul Hai Khateby, the spokesman for the governor of Khor province, says seven other pro-government militants were wounded in the attack late Friday, with two of them in critical condition.
Afghan officials said Daesh captured six villages controlled by Taliban in Khogyani and Shirzad districts of Afghanistan, and that fighting has not stopped.
Meanwhile, around 100 Afghan soldiers fled their posts and tried to cross into neighbouring Turkmenistan during a weeklong battle with the Taliban in the western Badghis province.
The pre-dawn assault in Helmand province's Shorab military base, one of the largest military installations in the country, also left at least 20 insurgents dead, officials say.
The four reportedly quit over differences with the government on how to handle the deteriorating security situation that has seen attacks from Daesh and the Taliban escalate.
Officials say the attack took place in northern Sar-i-Pul province in which an Afghan Taliban commander was also killed. Separately, officials say Afghan forces freed at least 54 people from a Taliban prison in southern Helmand province.
The two near-simultaneous attacks in western Badghis province came just a day after a suicide attack on a Kabul voter registration centre that killed over 50 people.
Kilis Governor Mehmet Tekinarslan says two rockets were fired from Syria's Afrin region by YPG terrorists that hit a mosque during evening prayers and a house.
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