The exit poll, conducted by the research firm Ipsos, projected that Law and Justice won 43.6% of the votes.
Parliament passes a bill to change how the country's Supreme Court functions, a step critics see as an erosion of judicial independence under the populist Law and Justice party.
Tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Warsaw and cities across Poland for candle-lit vigils, chanting "Free Courts" and demanding that President Andrzej Duda, an ally of the ruling PiS party, veto the bill.
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