Around 12 million voters have until 8:00 pm to cast ballots in polls that could see independent candidates enter the lower house of a parliament currently composed of parties loyal to President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev.
Various officials contesting polls must resign by March 16, while voting for Turks living abroad starts on April 27.
A 91 percent abstention rate from Tunisia's parliamentary elections indicates a growing gap between Tunisians and the North African country's politics.
Authorities record just 8.8 percent of the nine-million-strong electorate casting votes, with full results expected on Sunday.
Bahrain held the first round of parliamentary elections on November 12 and followed up with a second round on November 19 to fill seats in its 40-seat parliament that advises King Hamad.
Results are expected within the next 48 hours. More than 250,000 security personnel across the country were tasked with protecting the vote.
While Russian President Putin remains popular, United Russia party has seen its support drop as living standards decline following years of economic stagnation.
The Balkan country will hold its third parliamentary elections and the first round of the regular presidential election on the same date, Bulgaria's President Rumen Radev says.
Early results from a post-war snap parliamentary vote in Armenia showed Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan's party leading with 58.5 percent of the vote, far ahead of ex-president Robert Kocharyan's alliance with 18.5 percent.
Support for PM Boyko Borisov's GERB party has been eroded by a series of scandals, with protests last year accusing the government of protecting oligarchs.
PM Nikol Pashinyan says he will resign so that snap elections can take place in the coming month.
The parliamentary election included run-off votes in 49 electoral districts and first round voting in 69 districts where violence stopped the vote from taking place in December.
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