In another case, Hague Court of Appeal ruled Netherlands-based parent company Royal Dutch Shell and its Nigerian subsidiary must build a leak-detection system to a pipeline that caused spills.
The Japanese-owned MV Wakashio struck the reef on July 25 and began oozing oil one week later, threatening a protected marine park boasting mangrove forests and endangered species.
Security crises in the Persian Gulf will become increasingly high-stakes as the lack of communication between Iran and the US and its allies can trigger misinformation, perceived threats and potentially military confrontation.
The ruling is largely symbolic as Chevron no longer operates in the South American country, meaning that Ecuador's government will have to pursue assets owned by the San Ramon, California-based company in foreign courts.
Critics have accused the government of not acting quickly enough to prevent the spill from spreading from Salamina island across to the coastline.
A tanker carrying 2,500 tonnes of fuel sank off the island of Salamis on Sunday and local authorities rushed to tackle the contamination. But the spill has now started to spread to Athens' coastal resort of Glyfada.
There are no official reports on the size or what may have caused the spill but experts estimate as many as 35,000 barrels of crude oil may have leaked into the waters off Kuwait's Ras Al-Zour area.
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