Press Secretary Jen Psaki said both leaders would be discussing "the stability of global energy supplies."
US President Joe Biden will build on attempts to ensure energy backup for European allies when he hosts Qatar's emir in a White House meeting overshadowed by fears Russia could cut exports over the Ukraine crisis.
The most urgent agenda item for Biden is a scramble by the United States and the EU to ensure that European nations, already hit by soaring energy prices, can weather disruption in Russian exports if Moscow decides to cut supplies.
Western capitals are threatening unprecedented economic sanctions if Russia attacks Ukraine, where it has placed more than 100,000 combat troops on the border.
However, there are fears that the oil- and gas-producing giant could retaliate against the European Union, which imports 40 percent of its natural gas from Russia.
Limits to Qatar's role
Qatar is one of the world's biggest liquid natural gas exporters, along with the United States and Australia, and there are hopes in Washington and Europe that Doha can temporarily redirect exports destined for Asian markets.
However, Qatar has little to no extra capacity in its LNG and there are limitations to how much supply can be diverted from existing contracts.
Speaking just ahead of the visit, a senior US official seemed to downplay the focus on how much to expect from Qatar in the energy reshuffle, saying only "we're consulting with all the leading gas suppliers around the world."
"I'm not going to be able to give you anything further on LNG," the official said on Sunday, speaking on condition of anonymity.
"It will figure in the mix, but I can't give you any details."
Other meetings on the agenda
Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al Thani will be the first Gulf state leader to visit Biden since he became president just over a year ago and the Oval Office talks will cement the tiny country's status as a major international player.
In addition to meeting Biden, the sheikh will meet with Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin, Secretary of State Antony Blinken, members of Congress and other officials, the White House said.
Separately to the Biden meeting, representatives of Qatar and Qatar Airways were set to hold a signing ceremony with Boeing Company and GE Aviation in the White House.
Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo was to preside over the event, which follows Qatar Airways' strong interest in becoming the launch customer for Boeing's new 777X freighter.