The non-profit organisation has acted as an extended arm of the Israeli state and enabled the dispossession of Palestinians with what many call 'eco-colonialism'.

Roughly 75 percent of the forests and agricultural Jewish settlements developed under the Jewish National Fund (JNF) cover over 80 villages of pre-1948 Palestine. 

In the establishment of Israel, the military forces of the Zionist Movement destroyed over half of the villages of Mandate Palestine and uprooted close to 800,000 Palestinians from the country. Some were killed, others were expelled or internally displaced. 

While the JNF brands itself as Israel’s ecological organisation, it is widely criticised as being a greenwashing tool for the Israeli government, covering the crimes of dispossessing and expelling the Palestinian population through its “green” initiatives.

The organisation has over 150 forests under its management and boasts of having planted over 240 million trees since its founding in 1901. A vast majority of the trees, however, are non-native conifers not suitable for the country’s environment.

Here are just 20 of the parks and agricultural settlements of the JNF below, listing the Palestinian villages they were planted and built over along with the populations of the villages before 1948 and where they are located. 

1. Beit Elazari agricultural settlement

Built over: Palestinian village of Al-Maghar

Pre-1948 population: 2,018 Palestinian residents

Location:  Ramle Subdistrict 

2. Castel National Park in the Judean Mountains

Planted over: Palestinian village of Al-Qastal 

Pre-1948 population: 104 Palestinian residents

Location: Jerusalem Subdistrict

3. The agricultural settlements of Giv’ati, Azrikam, Emunim as well as the Zemorot Pond Nature Reserve

Built and planted over: Palestinian village of Bayt Daras 

Pre-1948 population: 3,190 Palestinian residents

Location: Gaza Subdistrict

4. Aminadav Forest 

Planted over: Palestinian village of Al-Walaja

Pre-1948 population: 2,041 Palestinian residents 

Location:  West Bank, Bethlehem Subdistrict

5. Agricultural area used by the settlements of Sde Nachum and Beyt ha-Shitta

Planted over: Palestinian village of Al-Murassas

Pre-1948 population: 534 Palestinian residents 

Location: Beisan Subdistrict

6. Ramot Naftali agricultural settlement 

Built over:  Palestinian villages of Qadas and Al-Nabi Yusha'.

Qadas population: 273 Palestinian residents

Al-Nabi Yusha’ population: 81 Palestinian residents

Location: Upper Galilee near the Lebanese border

7. Farmland used by the Yas’ur settlement

Planted over: Palestinian village of Al-Damun

Pre-1948 population: 1,520 Palestinian residents

Location: Akka Subdistrict (Acre)

8. Yas’ur agricultural settlement

Built over: Palestinian village of Al-Birwa

Pre-1948 population: 1, 694 Palestinian residents

Location: Akka Subdistrict (Acre)

READ MORE: Israel’s greenwashing: weaponising environmentalism on Palestinian lands

9. Ein Dor Grove

Planted over: Palestinian village of Indur

Pre-1948 population: 719 Palestinian residents

Location: Nazareth Subdistrict

10. Be'er Nahash well

Built over: Palestinian village of Dayr Nakhkhas

Pre-1948 population: 696 Palestinian residents

Location: Hebron Subdistrict

11. Kula Forest

Planted over: Palestinian village of Qula

Pre-1948 population: 1,172 Palestinian residents

Location: Ramle Subdistrict 

12. The agricultural settlements of ha-Solelim, Allon ha-Galil Hosha’aya and Chanton as well as Tsipori Grove

Built and planted over: Palestinian village of Saffuriyya

Pre-1948 population: 5,023 Palestinian residents 

Location: Nazareth Subdistrict 

13. Hodaya recreation area

Built over: Palestinian village of Julis

Pre-1948 population: 1,195 Palestinian residents

Location: Gaza Subdistrict

14. Biriyya Forest

Planted over: Palestinian villages of Fir'im, Ayn al-Zaytun, Ammuqa, Qabba'a and Mughr al-Khayt

Fir’im population: 858 Palestinian residents

Ayn al-Zaytun population: 951 Palestinian residents

Ammuqa population: 162 Palestinian residents

Qabba’a population: 534 Palestinian residents

Mughr al-Khayt: 568 Palestinian residents

Location: Safad Subdistrict

15. Beit Ha’emek agricultural settlement 

Built over: Palestinian village of Kuwaykat

Pre-1948 population: 1,218 Palestinian residents

Location: Akka Subdistrict (Acre)

16. Yehi'am Fortress National Park

Planted over: Palestinian village of Al-Ghabisiyya

Pre-1948 population: 1,438 Palestinian residents

Location:  Akka Subdistrict (Acre)

17. Ben Shemen Forest

Planted over: Palestinian villages of Jimzu, Dayr Abu Salama, Khirbat Zakariyya, Haditha, Khirbat al-Duhayriyya

Jimzu population: 1,752 Palestinian residents

Dayr Abu Salama population: 70 Palestinian residents

Khirbat Zakariyya land ownership: 4,538 dunams of land 

Haditha population: 882 Palestinian residents

Khirbat al-Duhayriyya population: 116 Palestinian residents

Location: Ramle Subdistrict

18. Bar’am Forest

Planted over: Palestinian village of Fara

Pre-1948 population: 320 Palestinian residents

Location: Safad Subdistrict

19. Mount Gilboa

Planted over: Palestinian villages of Nuris and Al-Mazar

Nuris population: 570 Palestinian residents

Al-Mazar population: 210 Palestinian residents

Location of Nuris: Jenin Subdistrict

Location of Al-Mazar: Haifa Subdistrict

20. Hakdoshim Forest

Planted over: Palestinian villages of Aqqur, Dayr 'Amr, Bayt Umm al-Mays, Khirbat al-'Umur and Kasla

Aqqur population: 46 Palestinian residents

Dayr ‘Amr population: 719 Palestinian residents 

Bayt Umm al-Mays population: 81 Palestinian residents

Khirbat al-’Umur population: 313 Palestinian residents

Kasla population: 325 Palestinian residents

Location: Jerusalem Subdistricts

Source: TRT World