With pressure growing in many countries for more measures to restart the economy, politicians also are trying to boost funding for research into a vaccine for Covid-19 which many scientists warn could take much longer than a few months.
Italy started stirring on Monday, with millions of people allowed to return to work as Europe’s longest coronavirus lockdown started easing, while the US took halting steps to lift some restrictions even as tens of thousands of new cases were reported every day.
In Washington, the Senate convened for the first time since March, while dozens of people in Florida waited before sunrise for the 7 am (local time) opening of Clearwater Beach. A shuttered pork processing plant in South Dakota took its first steps toward reopening after more than 800 employees were infected with coronavirus.
Louisiana lawmakers were also restarting their legislature — even as they feuded over whether they should return at all.
Political battles have become increasingly embedded in US coronavirus policy. In Louisiana, Republican legislators irritated by Democratic Governor John Bel Edwards’ decision to extend the state's stay-at-home order through May 15 were eager to return to work.
But Democrats saw things differently: “It could be a devastating blow to the strides made and to the safety of our residents, our staff and members if we returned to business as usual prematurely,” Democratic leaders wrote in a letter.
The moves to open US states came even as the country's one-day death toll stood at 1,313 on Sunday with more than 25,500 confirmed new infections, according the most recent Johns Hopkins University count. The real numbers are likely significantly higher.
Governments around the world have reported 3.5 million infections and more than 253,000 deaths, including more than 68,000 dead in the United States, according to a count by Johns Hopkins University.
Deliberately concealed outbreaks, low testing rates and the severe strain the disease has placed on health care systems mean the true scale of the pandemic is undoubtedly much greater.
With pressure growing in many countries for more measures to restart the economy, politicians also were trying to boost funding for research into a vaccine for Covid-19. There are hopes one could be available in months, but many scientists warn it could take much longer.
Developing a vaccine will be the key to returning to less restricted everyday life. On Monday, an alliance of world leaders hosted by the European Union held a virtual summit on vaccine research, pledging to give $8 billion (7.4 billion euros).
The US, along with Russia, was notably absent.
The leaders of France, Germany, Italy, Norway and top European Union officials said that money raised will be channeled mostly through recognized global health organisations. It remained unclear what role, if any, Washington might play.
French president Emmanuel Macron, who donated 500 million euros on behalf of France, noted that the US was currently “on the sidelines,” but said he had discussed the issue with President Donald Trump and was convinced the US would at some point join the initiative.
Italy, the first European country hit by the pandemic and a nation with one of the world's highest death tolls, began opening up cautiously after its two-month shutdown — allowing 4.4 million Italians to return to work.
Traffic in downtown Rome picked up, construction sites and manufacturing operations resumed, parks reopened and flower vendors returned to the Campo dei Fiori market for the first time since March 11.
“It’s something that brings happiness and joy, and people have been missing that these days,” vendor Stefano Fulvi said. He doesn’t expect to break even anytime soon, “but you have to take the risk at some point.”
But Europeans' new-found freedoms are limited as officials are wary of setting off a second wave of infections. In Italy, mourners were allowed to attend funerals, with services limited to 15 people. Restaurants scrubbed floors in preparation for take-out service. Sit-down service was several weeks away.
In Florida, where Governor Ron DeSantis said restaurants and retail shops could open at 25 percent capacity beginning Monday, some business owners were unsure how to see things.
Tony Loeffler, the owner of Atlas Body and Home, a men’s apparel and lifestyle shop in downtown St. Petersburg, said he was both apprehensive and excited.
“We feel like we have to do this, even though we feel a little conflicted,” he said. “But we’re practicing all the common sense and CDC requirements so I feel like on our end we’re safe. But it’s so hard to know how everyone else is, how seriously they’re taking it.”
California Governor Gavin Newsom, a Democrat and one of the first US governors to impose a statewide stay-home order, announced that some businesses in the state will receive permission to reopen as early as Friday, with restrictions.
Newsom’s phased-in plan allows clothing stores, sporting goods, florists and other retailers to resume operations with curbside pickup. Dining in at restaurants and office reopenings are still prohibited.
California's state Assembly restarted its legislative session Monday, though the Senate will not bring members back until May 11.
California Assembly Speaker Anthony Rendon said members must be at the Capitol to participate in committee hearings and floor sessions, based on legal advice that votes taken remotely “would likely be challenged in the courts and thrown out.”
He said uncomfortable state lawmakers are “encouraged to stay home. We are definitely not forcing anybody to come to work.”
Often, it was unclear just what would reopen.
In the Atlanta suburb of Kennesaw, the giant Town Center at Cobb mall,reopened Monday but many stores remained closed, with dark interiors and locked gates at Starbucks, Victoria's Secret and other shops.
A maze of one-way paths wound through the eating area, marked off with signs and blue electrical tape stuck to the floor. But policies were inconsistent.
The four workers at the Chick-fil-A counter all wore masks, and customers stood on black X’s about 1.8 metres (6 feet) apart as they waited to order.
Next door at the American Deli, workers Monday morning did not wear masks and there were no marks for customers to stand apart. By afternoon some employees were wearing masks.
In the restroom, a sign said only six people were allowed inside at a time. Social distancing was enforced in the men's room with red electrical tape draped across every other urinal.
In Early County, Georgia, which has one of the highest death rates for Covid-19 in the US, a hospital official said it worries her that Georgia has been so aggressive about reopening businesses.
I’m very concerned,” said Ginger Cushing from LifeBrite Community Hospital, noting that over the weekend it was “like back to normal just looking at the amount of cars on the road and people in food places. They’re still standing outside and maintaining social distance, but it’s just a lot busier.”
Meanwhile, the city of Miami Beach closed seaside South Pointe Park after too many people refused to wear face masks or remain socially distanced over the weekend.
Carnival Cruise Line, meanwhile, which saw a series of high-profile outbreaks on its ships, announced Monday it will start cruises again in August, leaving from Florida and Texas. The Caribbean trips will be the company’s first since the pandemic forced a near-total pause in the global cruise industry.