The long-ruling Democratic Party of Socialists is bidding to stay in power for another four years, and is being challenged by a pro-Serb group advocating stronger ties with Serbia and Russia.
Montenegrins go to the polls on Sunday in a parliamentary election that looks too close to call, with neither the long-ruling pro-Western party nor a rival pro-Russian alliance tipped to win a majority of seats.
At stake is the political future of President Milo Djukanovic. He leads the Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) and has governed Montenegro since the start of the break-up of federal Yugoslavia in 1990 and through the dissolution of its union with Serbia in 2006.
Staunchly pro-western, Djukanovic has overseen Montenegro's ongoing efforts to qualify for membership of the European Union and was instrumental in securing its accession to NATO in 2017.
Final opposition rally ahead of Sunday’s election in #Montenegro. They hope to unseat Europe’s longest standing #dictator Milo Đukanović, who has held on to power for over 30 years. Polls show Milo is going down, but his party said they’ll claim victory regardless of the results. pic.twitter.com/uklHFKfkR9— Boris Malagurski (@malagurski) August 29, 2020
Coalition government likely
The vote pits the DPS against an alliance of mainly Serb nationalist parties seeking closer ties to Serbia and Russia.
Led by university professor Zdravko Krivokapic, it is backed by the powerful Serbian Orthodox Church, which holds daily protests against a law adopted last December that allows the state to seize religious assets whose historical ownership cannot be proven.
Montenegrins who identify as Serbs account for about a third of the 620,000 population. Most Montenegrins and Serbs share language and the Orthodox faith, and many Serbian citizens have roots and families in Montenegro.
The DPS has 42 deputies in the current 81-seat parliament, but polls suggest neither it nor the nationalists are on course to secure an absolute majority, making them reliant on coalition partners to form a government.
Polling stations will open at 0500GMT and close at 800 PM. The first partial results are due around 1000 PM.
Opposition leaders and democracy and rights watchdogs have accused Djukanovic and his party of running Montenegro as their own fiefdom with links to organised crime.
They deny this, and Djukanovic - who faces re-election as the country's President in 2023 - and his top associates have in turn accused Serbia and Russia of using the Church and the pro-Serb opposition to undermine the independence of the mountainous coastal republic.
Montenegro has also been combating a coronavirus outbreak that has infected more than 4,500 people, caused 89 deaths, and gutted the Adriatic tourism that is a key driver of its economy.