Under the notifications system, someone exposed to a person who tests positive for Covid-19 will receive an alert on their phone. The two US companies said 22 countries had so far asked to use their platform.
Apple and Google on Wednesday released long-awaited smartphone technology to automatically notify people if they might have been exposed to the coronavirus.
The companies said 22 countries and several US states are already planning to build voluntary phone apps using their software. It relies on Bluetooth wireless technology to detect when someone who downloaded the app has spent time near another app user who later tests positive for the virus.
Many governments have already tried, to roll out their own phone apps to fight the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic. Some of those apps have encountered technical problems on Apple and Android phones and haven't been widely adopted.
They often use GPS to track people’s location, which Apple and Google are banning from their new tool because of privacy and accuracy concerns, but health officials argue it's more effective.
Australia, the United Kingdom and other countries that have sought to develop their own technology are experiencing glitches, draining device batteries and seeing limited adoption.
Apple and Google have made claims that their system will more reliably use Bluetooth connections between devices to log users who are in physical proximity for at least five minutes.
Public health agencies from Germany to the states of Alabama and South Carolina have been waiting to use the Apple-Google model, while other governments have said the tech giants' privacy restrictions will be a hindrance because public health workers will have no access to the data.
The apps don't involve contact tracing, a pillar of infection control that involves trained public health workers reaching out to people who may have been exposed to an infected person.
'Exposure notification' system
The company claims their automatic “exposure notification” system can augment that process and slow the spread of Covid-19 by virus carriers who are interacting with strangers and aren't yet showing symptoms.
Some governments contend their app-based efforts would be more effective if they could track users' locations to identify hot spots for virus transmission and notify them about possible exposure through calls or texts, rather than a generic push notification.
The identity of app users will be protected by encryption and anonymous identifier beacons that change frequently.
“User adoption is key to success and we believe that these strong privacy protections are also the best way to encourage use of these apps,” the companies said in a joint statement Wednesday.
The companies said the new technology –– the product of a rare partnership between the rival tech giants –– solves some of the main technical challenges that governments have had in building Bluetooth-based apps. It will make it easier for iPhones and Android phones to detect each other, work across national and regional borders and fix some of the problems that led previous apps to quickly drain a phone’s battery.
The statement on Wednesday also included remarks from state officials in North Dakota, Alabama and South Carolina signaling that they plan to use it.
"We invite other states to join us in leveraging smartphone technologies to strengthen existing contact tracing efforts, which are critical to getting communities and economies back up and running,” said North Dakota Gov. Doug Burgum, a Republican.
North Dakota had already launched a location-tracking app that about 4 percent of state residents are using, higher than other US states with similar apps but falling far short of the participation rate that experts say is needed to make such technology useful.
Tim Brookins, the CEO of ProudCrowd, a startup that developed North Dakota's app, said on Wednesday that North Dakotans will now be asked to download two complementary apps – his model, to help public health workers track where Covid-19 patients have been, and the Apple-Google model, to privately notify people who might have been exposed to the virus.
Ryan Calo, a law professor who co-directs the University of Washington's Tech Policy Lab, said he is concerned about its effectiveness if people get too many false alerts asking them to quarantine themselves. He said public health agencies would be better off being able to track location with careful safeguards.
Calo said Google and Apple have been more upfront about the limitations of their model, but he said he's still worried some governments will treat it as a substitute for crucial investments in free, widespread testing and hiring an army of human contact tracers.
“We’re just not going to get out of this global pandemic with a clever app,” he said.