Maduro won a popular vote in May, but his re-election has been dismissed as illegitimate by the opposition and much of the international community.
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro is sworn in for a second term resulting from his victory in a 2018 election that was widely described as a sham by countries around the world.
Maduro won a popular vote in May but his re-election has been dismissed as illegitimate by the opposition and much of the international community.
But Maduro has responded to the criticism in a fierce rhetoric emphasising Venezuela's independence, promising 2019 will be a "year of new beginnings."
"Who doesn't recognise the legitimacy of the Venezuelan institutions will receive a reciprocal and appropriate response, we will act with great firmness because Venezuela needs to be respected, we will make Venezuela respected," he said.
TRT World's Juan Carlos Lamas reports from Caracas.
'We're going to triumph'
Leaders from the ruling Socialist Party have also disavowed criticism of Maduro's inauguration, which will keep him at the helm of the OPEC member until 2025, and called for rallies in his support.
Opposition leaders, however, have portrayed the inauguration as the moment at which Maduro will be internationally branded a dictator following a widely boycotted 2018 election that many foreign governments described as a farce.
But continued support from the military, a fractured opposition and a relentless crackdown on opposition critics means that Maduro appears to face few serious challenges at home, despite the international outcry.
"They've tried to turn a constitutional swearing-in ceremony into a world war," Maduro said during a news conference on Wednesday. "But whether there's rain, thunder or lightning, we're going to triumph."
The US will not recognize the Maduro dictatorship’s illegitimate inauguration. We will continue to increase pressure on the corrupt regime, support the democratic National Assembly, and call for democracy and freedom in Venezuela.— John Bolton (@AmbJohnBolton) January 10, 2019
The United States has also refused to recognise Maduro's legitimacy and vowed to ramp up pressure as he starts his new term.
"The US will not recognise the Maduro dictatorship's illegitimate inauguration," national security advisor John Bolton tweeted.