The money provided by Washington will be spent to replace missile interceptors used during Israel's war on Gaza in May, in which more than 250 Palestinians were killed.
The US House of Representatives has voted overwhelmingly for legislation to provide $1 billion to Israel to replenish its "Iron Dome" missile-defence system, just two days after the funding was removed from a broader spending bill.
The measure on Thursday passed by 420 to 9, with two members voting present.
Some of the most liberal House Democrats had objected to the provision and said they would vote against the broad spending bill if it was included.
That threatened the bill's passage, with Democrats only narrowly controlling the House, because Republicans have opposed the plan to fund the federal government through December 3 and raise the nation's borrowing limit.
The removal led Republicans to label Democrats as anti-Israel, despite a long tradition in the US Congress of strong support from both parties for the Jewish state, to which Washington sends billions of dollars in aid every year.
Israel responded quickly.
"Thanks to all members of the US House of Representatives, Democratic and Republican alike, for their sweeping support for Israel and the commitment to its security. Those who try to challenge this support got a resounding response today," Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said in a statement.
Some liberal Democrats voiced concerns recently about US-Israel policy, citing human rights concerns like Palestinian civilian casualties as Israel responded to Hamas rocket attacks in May.
Israel said most of the 4,350 rockets fired from besieged Gaza during the recent war were blown out of the sky by Iron Dome interceptors.
"We should also be talking about the Palestinian need for protection against Israeli attack," Democratic Representative Rashida Tlaib, an opponent of the funding, said during debate.