"Four hundred years of discrimination has resulted in an enormous and persistent wealth gap between Black and white Americans," says 500-page report detailing US state’s role in perpetuating discrimination against African Americans.
The slavery reparations movement has hit a watershed moment with the release of an exhaustive report detailing California's role in perpetuating discrimination against African Americans, a major step toward educating the public and setting the stage for an official government apology and a case for financial restitution.
The 500-page document released on Wednesday lays out the harm suffered by descendants of enslaved people even today, long after slavery was abolished in the 19th century, through discriminatory laws and actions in all facets of life, from housing and education to employment and the legal system.
"Four hundred years of discrimination has resulted in an enormous and persistent wealth gap between Black and white Americans," said the report by the California Task Force to Study and Develop Reparation Proposals for African Americans.
"These effects of slavery continue to be embedded in American society today and have never been sufficiently remedied. The governments of the United States and the State of California have never apologised to or compensated African Americans for these harms."
Longtime reparations advocate Justin Hansford, who is a law professor at Howard University and director of the Thurgood Marshall Civil Rights Center in Washington called the moment exciting and monumental.
"To have an official detail of these histories coming from the state is important," he said.
"I know a lot of people say we don't need to keep doing studies, but the reality is until it comes from some source that people think is objective, then it is going to be harder to convince everybody of some of the inequalities described."
California is headed in the opposite direction, said Adam Laats, a historian at Binghamton University who called the document remarkable in its unflinching account, including detailing how police officers and district attorneys in the Los Angeles of a century ago were members of or had ties to the Ku Klux Klan.
"Who children should learn are the main actors in the story of us as a nation has always been a real lightning rod," he said.
California's dark history of violence
Governor Gavin Newsom signed legislation creating the two-year task force in 2020, making California the only state to move ahead with a study and plan.
Cities and universities have taken up the cause, with the Chicago suburb of Evanston, Illinois, becoming the first city to make reparations available to Black residents last year.
On Wednesday, Newsom issued a statement praising California for leading the country on a long-overdue discussion of racial justice and equity. The state's Attorney General Rob Bonta, whose office is assisting the task force, said, "California was not a passive actor in perpetuating these harms."
A similar effort is under way to delve into what Newsom has called California's dark history of violence, mistreatment and neglect of Native Americans.
The report by the Truth and Healing Council, due in 2025, could include recommendations for reparations. Many tribes across the country have sought to acquire their ancestral land and co-manage public land.
The African American reparations task force, which began meeting in June 2021, will release a comprehensive reparations plan next year. The committee voted in March to limit reparations to the descendants of African Americans living in the US in the 19th century, overruling advocates who wanted to expand compensation to all Black people in the US.
Black Californians' sufferings
California is home to the fifth-largest Black population in the US, after Texas, Florida, Georgia and New York, the report said. An estimated 2.8 million Black people live in California, although it is unclear how many are eligible for direct compensation.
African Americans make up less than 6 percent of California’s population yet they are overrepresented in jails, youth detention centers and prisons. About 28 percent of people imprisoned in California are Black and in 2019, 36 percent of minors ordered into state juvenile detention facilities were African Americans, according to the report.
Black Californians earn less and are more likely to be poorer than white residents. In 2018, Black residents earned on average just under $54,000 compared to $87,000 for white Californians.